This chapter will focus on the High Leverage Practices (HLPs) in Special Education (1-3), related to Collaboration.
HLP 1: Collaborate with professionals to increase student success.
HLP 2: Organize and facilitate effective meetings with professionals and families.
HLP 3: Collaborate with families to support student learning and secure needed services
Adapted from McLeskey, J., Barringer, M-D., Billingsley, B., Brownell, M., Jackson, D., Kennedy, M., Lewis, T., Maheady, L., Rodriguez, J., Scheeler, M. C., Winn, J., & Ziegler, D. (2017, January). High-leverage practices in special education. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children & CEEDAR Center. (Permission is granted to reproduce and adapt any portion of this publication with acknowledgement)
Effective special education teachers collaborate with a wide range of professionals, families and caregivers to assure that educational programs and related services are effectively designed and implemented to meet the needs of each student with a disability.
Collaboration allows for varied expertise and perspectives about a student to be shared among those responsible for the student’s learning and well-being. This collective expertise provides collaborators with a more comprehensive understanding of each student’s needs, which can be used to more effectively plan and implement instruction and services. Teachers use respectful and effective communication skills as they collaborate with others, considering the background, socioeconomic status, culture, and language of the families and the professionals with whom they work.
Collaborative activities should be focused on (a) designing each student’s instructional program to meet clearly specified outcomes and (b) collecting data and monitoring progress toward
these outcomes. Effective and purposeful collaboration should enlist support from district and school leaders, who can foster a collective commitment to collaboration, provide professional learning experiences to increase team members’ collaborative skills, and create schedules that support different forms of ongoing collaboration (e.g., individualized education program [IEP] teams, co-teachers, teachers–families, teachers–paraprofessionals).
Collaboration with general education teachers, paraprofessionals, and support staff is necessary to support students’ learning toward measurable outcomes and to facilitate students’ social and emotional well-being across all school environments and instructional settings (e.g., co-taught). Collaboration with individuals or teams requires the use of effective collaboration behaviors (e.g., sharing ideas, active listening, questioning, planning, problem solving, negotiating) to develop and adjust instructional or behavioral plans based on student data, and the coordination of expectations, responsibilities, and resources to maximize student learning.
Collaboration is broadly recommended in special education for accomplishing a wide range of goals, including determining eligibility for services, delivering instruction, ensuring support through paraprofessionals, and resolving student and programmatic issues (see Burns, Vanderwood, & Ruby, 2005). However, collaboration is ethereal in that it is never an end in itself, instead operating as a culture or a means through which any goal can be reached. Collaboration often is indirectly fostered among members of a school work group by arranging time for participants to meet face-to-face, guiding them through the development of positive professional relationships, establishing explicit and implicit procedures for working together, and teaching them about school programs that rely on collaborative interactions (e.g., teams, co-teaching). Collaboration is not explicitly mandated in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act IDEA), nor is it generally part of formal policies related to educating students with disabilities, but the requirements of the law and established school practices strongly infer that it is through collaboration that the effective education of students with disabilities is achieved.
The two most common school structures presumed to rely on collaboration are co-teaching and teams. Co-teaching research generally has found strong support among teachers but mixed results for students (Murawski & Swanson, 2001; Scruggs, Mastropieri, & McDuffie, 2007). The most recent examination of the co-teaching research literature, an analysis of six co-teaching and inclusion research syntheses, concluded that when general educators and special educators work closely to coordinate the delivery of curriculum and have resources such as time to plan, small positive effects on student academic outcomes are achieved (Solis, Vaughn, Swanson, & McCulley, 2012). A related study supported this conclusion, finding that elementary-age students with disabilities in co-taught classes made significant educational progress while those in separate special education classroom settings did not, the gap between the two groups widening across time (Tremblay, 2013).
Special education teachers typically organize, schedule, and lead a variety of meetings, including annual IEP meetings as well as ongoing collaborative meetings essential to instructional planning and progress monitoring. IEP meetings involve both parents and professionals (e.g., general education teachers, fellow special education teachers, reading specialists, curriculum specialists, principals, other administrators, outside consultants), as well as students with disabilities. IDEA requires that parents be given opportunities for full participation in the development of the IEP. The way in which the IEP meeting is organized and facilitated should ensure that the family is an equal partner in the development of an appropriate education for the child.
Special education teachers need to facilitate meetings so they run smoothly, involve others as equal participants, and accomplish the goals of the meeting. These tasks require communicating effectively with others, being able discuss aspects of the individual child’s program (e.g., explain the rationale behind behavior intervention plans, describe effective practices), and facilitating consensus among all involved. The partnership principles of equality, choice, voice, reciprocity, praxis, and reflection aid in the development of effective communication skills (Knight, 2007). Using these principles requires specific skills, which may be developed with diligent practice. It may be helpful to solicit feedback from a mentor or colleague as well as team members to improve one’s communication and facilitation skills.
The Council for Exceptional Children’s special education Code of Ethics (2015) includes the following principles relating to organizing and facilitating effective meetings:
- Practicing collegially with others who are providing services to individuals with exceptionalities.
- Developing relationships with families based on mutual respect and actively involving families and individuals with exceptionalities in educational decision making. (p. 7)
Collaboration—when teachers work together to diagnose what they need to do, plan and teach interventions, and evaluate their effectiveness—has shown a strong effect size of 0.93 on student achievement (DuFour, 2007; Hattie, 2008).
Meeting agendas should be planned in a way that invites the sharing of multiple perspectives, involves active listening, and encourages consensus building, while maintaining efficiency. Agendas for formal meetings should be developed and shared in advance; the meeting should be scheduled for an appropriate amount of time given meeting goals and participants invited with sufficient advance notice.
Meetings will be more productive if there is trust among participants. Teachers should consider taking steps before meetings to build relationships with professionals and families on an ongoing basis (Billingsley, Brownell, Israel, & Kamman, 2013). At the start of the school year, effective special educators communicate with families via phone, e-mail, or notes home with positive messages about individual children and their accomplishments.
As special educators are primary communicators in the school regarding students with disabilities, they also should serve as models of respectful communication by using person-first language
Teachers collaborate with families about individual children’s needs, goals, programs, and progress over time and ensure families are informed about their rights as well as about special education processes (e.g., IEPs, IFSPs). Teachers should respectfully and effectively communicate considering the background, socioeconomic status, language, culture, and priorities of the family. Teachers advocate for resources to help students meet instructional, behavioral, social, and transition goals. In building positive relationships with students, teachers encourage students to self-advocate, with the goal of fostering self-determination over time. Teachers also work with families to self-advocate and support their children’s learning.
The importance of collaborating with families to promote participation in educational decision making has been identified as one of the key principles of IDEA (H. R. Turnbull, Stowe, & Huerta, 2007). IDEA provides for specific rights that enable parents to participate as equal members of the IEP team and to be involved in evaluation, placement, and special education and related service decisions. For families to take on such roles and responsibilities, collaboration between professionals and families is necessary. Using effective partnership strategies has been identified as a necessary element of building collaborative relationships.
Family–professional partnerships have been defined as a relationship in which families (not just parents) and professionals agree to build on each other’s expertise and resources, as appropriate, for the purpose of making and implementing decisions that will directly benefit students and indirectly benefit other family members and professionals. (A. P. Turnbull, Turnbill, Erwin, Soodak, & Shogren, 2015, p. 161)
Seven principles of effective partnerships have been identified in the literature (see A. P. Turnbull et al., 2015):
- Communication: Teachers and families communicate openly and honestly in a medium that is comfortable for the family.
- Professional competence: Teachers are highly qualified in the area in which they work, continue to learn and grow, and have and communicate high expectations for students and families.
- Respect. Teachers treat families with dignity, honor cultural diversity, and affirm strengths.
- Commitment: Teachers are available, consistent, and go above and beyond what is expected of them.
- Equality; Teachers recognize the strengths of every member of a team, share power with families, and focus on working together with families.
- Advocacy: Teachers focus on getting to the best solution for the student in partnership with the family.
- Trust: Teachers are reliable and act in the best interest of the student, sharing their vision and actions with the family.
In implementing these principles, it is essential to honor and respect cultural diversity and differing communication styles and preferences.